Antibodies from healthy or paratuberculosis infected cows have different effects on Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis invasion in a calf ileal loop model

In this work, we used a calf ileal loop model to evaluate whether the preincubation of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) with antibodies from healthy, MAP-positive or Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) immunized cows could affect the results of infection after 3.5 h. Bacterial load in tissue was assessed by Ziehl-Neelsen and by culture for each loop. MAP was detectable in all infected loops after 3.5 h.p.i.; although the presence of antibodies from MAP-positive cows significantly reduced bacterial load in loops as compared with antibodies from healthy donors (by Ziehl-Neelsen and culture, p-value < 0.003 and 0.0203, respectively).
A possible direct effect of antibodies on MAP viability was shown to be not significant. Severity of histopathologic changes induced by MAP infection also varied according to the pretreatment: MAP induced less changes when inoculated in the presence of antibodies from MAP-positive cows as compared with antibodies from healthy donors. Overall, our results show that the presence of antibodies from MAP-positive cows reduced MAP invasion and consequent early histological changes in this ileal short-term loop model. These results may suggest a protective role of antibodies in the response against MAP at the portal of entry in cattle.

Effect of passive antibodies derived from rotavirus-like particles on neonatal calf diarrhea caused by rotavirus in an oral challenge model

Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of bovine rotavirus antigen-specific passive antibody for reducing the duration of diarrhea induced by oral challenge with bovine rotavirus in a neonatal calf model. The bovine rotavirus-specific passive antibodies were produced before the study by hyperimmunization of pregnant cows during the dry period with an adjuvanted vaccine containing recombinantly-expressed rotavirus virus-like particles. Eighty-three calves were cleanly collected at birth and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups as follows: (1) control group that was colostrum deprived and fed milk replacer for first feeding, (2) group that was colostrum deprived and fed milk replacer mixed with antirotavirus antibodies for first feeding, or (3) group that was fed colostrum replacer mixed with antirotavirus antibodies and a product approved by the US Department of Agriculture containing antibodies against Escherichia coli K99 and bovine coronavirus for first feeding. One of the 3 treatments was administered within 6 h of birth to each calf, followed by oral challenge with bovine rotavirus 3 h later.
Calves were observed through 7 d of age and scored according to a standardized scale for clinical signs of diarrhea, change in appetite, depression, and dehydration. Twice daily, measurements of rectal temperature and collection of feces were performed. Fecal samples were assessed for infectious agents commonly associated with diarrhea, and bovine rotavirus shedding was quantified. There were 24 of 28 (86%) calves in the control group that received no antibodies that had signs of severe diarrhea, whereas 57% of the calves that received antirotavirus in milk replacer experienced severe diarrhea, and 7% of calves that received colostrum replacer mixed with antigen-specific bovine rotavirus antibodies showed signs of severe diarrhea. Calves that received colostrum replacer mixed with antigen-specific bovine rotavirus antibodies had a mean duration of 0.9 d of diarrhea compared with 2.7 d in the control group.
Calves in the group that was colostrum deprived and fed milk replacer with antirotavirus antibodies had a mean duration of diarrhea of 1.7 d. Rotavirus peak fecal shedding was 3.5 d in the group with milk replacer only, 5.5 d in the milk replacer with antibody group, and 6.5 d in calves in the colostrum replacer group. When bovine rotavirus antigen-specific antibody was fed in milk replacer to colostrum-deprived calves or in conjunction with colostrum replacer that also contained supplemental antibodies against Escherichia coli K99 and bovine coronavirus, those calves were observed to have reduced the onset, duration, and severity of diarrhea when compared with milk replacer placebo.

A new passive immune strategy based on IgY antibodies as a key element to control neonatal calf diarrhea in dairy farms

Background: Neonatal diarrhea remains one of the main causes of morbi-mortality in dairy calves under artificial rearing. It is often caused by infectious agents of viral, bacterial, or parasitic origin. Cows vaccination and colostrum intake by calves during the first 6 h of life are critical strategies to prevent severe diarrhea but these are still insufficient. Here we report the field evaluation of a product based on IgY antibodies against group A rotavirus (RVA), coronavirus (CoV), enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, and Salmonella sp. This product, named IgY DNT, has been designed as a complementary passive immunization strategy to prevent neonatal calf diarrhea. The quality of the product depends on the titers of specific IgY antibodies to each antigen evaluated by ELISA. In the case of the viral antigens, ELISA antibody (Ab) titers are correlated with protection against infection in calves experimentally challenged with RVA and CoV (Bok M, et al., Passive immunity to control bovine coronavirus diarrhea in a dairy herd in Argentina, 2017), (Vega C, et al., Vet Immunol Immunopathol, 142:156-69, 2011), (Vega C, et al., Res Vet Sci, 103:1-10, 2015). To evaluate the efficiency in dairy farms, thirty newborn Holstein calves were randomly assigned to IgY DNT or control groups and treatment initiated after colostrum intake and gut closure. Calves in the IgY DNT group received 20 g of the oral passive treatment in 2 L of milk twice a day during the first 2 weeks of life. Animals were followed until 3 weeks of age and diarrhea due to natural exposure to infectious agents was recorded during all the experimental time.
Results: Results demonstrate that the oral administration of IgY DNT during the first 2 weeks of life to newborn calves caused a delay in diarrhea onset and significantly reduced its severity and duration compared with untreated calves. Animals treated with IgY DNT showed a trend towards a delay in RVA infection with significantly shorter duration and virus shedding compared to control calves.
Conclusions: This indicates that IgY DNT is an effective product to complement current preventive strategies against neonatal calf diarrhea in dairy farms. Furthermore, to our knowledge, this is the only biological product available for the prevention of virus-associated neonatal calf diarrhea.

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[Risk factors for calf mortality influence the occurrence of antibodies against the pathogens of enzootic bronchopneumonia].

  • Bovine respiratory diseases are a common cause of calf loss. This study aimed to analyse associations between an occurrence of enzootic bronchopneumonia (EBP), calf mortality and calving management.A total of 153 dairy farms participated in the study on a voluntary basis from November 2006 to July 2007. Calf management was inspected on-site during a farm visit and farm managers were required to complete a questionnaire on personal assessment of calving procedures, neonate management and environmental factors.
  • Results were collated and matched with the calf mortality rate of 2006 determined from the HI-Tier database for each farm. Randomly selected serum samples of a mean number of 7 calves at the age 6 months per herd were investigated for antibodies against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV-AB) and parainfluenzavirus type 3 (PIV3-AB). According to the proportion of calves with BRSV-AB or PIV3-AB (≤ 20 % or > 20 %) farms were divided into 2 groups.
  • Customary timing of the first colostrum feeding as well as the perceived level of importance of EBP to the farm manager, as described in the questionnaire, showed a positive correlation to calf mortality. BRSV-AB occurred more frequently on farms where managers stated that the first colostrum feeding occurred later than 4 hours after birth, that birth monitoring was rarely practiced and that the estimated level of dust in the calf barn was considered high. PIV3-AB was more frequently found at farms practicing tethered calving.
  • The results of this study indicate that peri- and postnatal calf management procedures may affect calf mortality and the frequency of occurrence of BRSV-AB or PIV3-AB. The influences of birth monitoring and the time of first colostrum feeding as well as dust exposure should be taken into account in future studies on the frequency of EBP and be included in the veterinary cause analysis of herd EBP-related problems.

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